This is the circuitry that provides power and signal collection to properly help our device function.
Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients are often kept overnight, with average stays lasting 4 days ± 7.2 days. ICU patients commonly self-report an average of 4.0 ± 1.7 hours of sleep per night, compared to an at-home average of 7 ± 2.2 hours of sleep per night . Most environmental complaints observed from our interviews revolved around light, noise, environmental movement, & medication dosing. Previous studies have also provided evidence of a decrease in patient stays, in 30-day readmission rates, and need for medicinal interventions with patients also reporting an increase in positive mental health rating as sleep quality improved within hospitals. The aim of our device is to limit disruptions during patient REM cycles within the ICU setting, where our sponsor, Lilas Dagher, is currently fulfilling her residence at Emory. Our device is a semi-disposable sleep monitor for use within the ICU to aid the sleep patterns of patients leading to better quality outcomes and limit hospital stays. To achieve this our device can be broken down into three different components: a slim disposable patch, a component box housing circuitry, and a novel algorithm for sleep stage identification. As there are no current standards for sleep monitoring within a hospital setting, we based our device around sleep studies, or polysomnography (PSG). In order to simplify our device we chose to have our device only monitor brain waves via electroencephalogram (EEG), rapid eye movement via electrooculography (EOG), and middle ear muscle activity (MEMA) via electromyography (EMG). Our novel algorithm uses these three signals to determine if the patient is in REM sleep or non-REM sleep and provides feedback to the nurse. Having daily accessible sleep cycle recording will also aid in the the assessment of the patient’s clinical progress as disturbed sleep cycles are associated with worsening outcomes.